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Life Cycle of Recyclables: Images and Citations


APA Citation

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Sample MLA Citations

Example 1: L'Engle, Madeleine. A Wrinkle in Time. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1962.

Example 2: Fredrickson, George M. White Supremacy: A Comparative Study in American and South African History. Oxford UP, 1982.

Example 3 (two authors): Gaiman, Neil, and Terry Pratchett. Good Omens: The Nice and Accurate Prophecies of Agnes Nutter, Witch. HarperTorch, 2006.

Example 4 (book with translator and editor): Sullivan, Alan, and Timothy Murphy, translators. Beowulf. Edited by Sarah Anderson, Pearson, 2004.

Example 5 (corporate author): New York State, Committee on State Prisons. Investigations of the New York State Prisons. 1883. Arno Press, 1974. 

Example 1: Poe, Edgar Allan.“The Masque of the Red Death.” The Complete Works of Edgar Allan Poe, edited by James A. Harrison, vol. 4, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1902, pp. 250-58. HathiTrust Digital Library,;view=1up;seq=266.

Example 2 (chapter from a book): Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. “The Carolina Algonquians.” Roanoke: The Abandoned Colony. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Google Books,

Example 1: Rohan, Brian. “Investigators Probe Mass Grave.” Daily Hampshire Gazette [Northampton], 9 Nov. 2016, p. 3.

Example 2: Brubaker, Bill. "New Health Center Targets County's Uninsured Patients." Washington Post, 24 May 2007, p. LZ01.

Weiland, Noah. "Bill Murray Gets a Cubs Win and the Mark Twain Prize." New York Times, 24 Oct. 2016, p. NA(L). The New York Times,

Example 1: “Woman Gives Birth to Grandchild.”, 15 Oct. 2006,

Example 2: Mackin, Joseph. Review of The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction, by Alan Jacobs. New York Journal of Books, 2 June 2011,

Example 3: Deresiewicz, William. “The Death of the Artist- and the Birth of the Creative Entrepreneur.” The Atlantic, 28 Dec. 2014,

Example 1: “Developments in the Law: The Law of Marriage and Family.” Harvard Law Review, vol. 116, no. 7, 2003, pp. 1996-2122. JSTOR,

Example 2:  Braun, Ashley. "Alaskasaurus." Natural History, May 2014, p. 7. Science in Context,

Example 3: Gourievidis, Laurence. “Representing the Disputed Past of Northern Scotland.” History and Memory: Studies in the Representation of the Past, vol. 12, no. 2, 2000, p. 122. World History Collection,


“California.” The New Columbia Encyclopedia, edited by William H. Harris and Judith S. Levey, 4th ed., Columbia UP, 1975, pp. 423-24.

Example 1: "Led Zeppelin." Britannica Library, Encyclopedia Britannica, 27 Jan. 2014.

Example 2: Strong, John S. "Relics." Encyclopedia of Religion, edited by Lindsay Jones, 2nd ed., vol. 11, Macmillan, 2005, pp. 7686-7692. Gale Virtual Reference Library,

TED-Ed. “The Atlantic Slave Trade: What Too Few Textbooks Told You.” YouTube, narrated by Anthony Hazard, 22 Dec. 2014,

Boyle, Anthony T. "Re: Utopia." Recieved by Daniel J. Cahill, 21 June 2007. 

“Best of Not My Job Musicians.” Wait Wait....Don't Tell Me! from NPR, 4 June 2016,

Scott, Ridley, director. Blade Runner. 1982. Performance by Harrison Ford, director’s cut, Warner Bros., 1992.

Example 1: “Chapter 1: The Vanishing of Will Byers.” Stranger Things, created by the Duffer Brothers, performance by Winona Ryder, season 1, episode 1, 21 Laps Entertainment, 2016, Netflix,

Example 2: "Hush." Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, episode 10, WB Television Network, 14 Dec. 1999. 

@persiankiwi. "We have report of large street battles in east & west of Tehran now - #Iranelection." Twitter, 23 June 2009, 11:15 a.m., 


Beyoncé. "Pretty Hurts." Beyoncé, Parkwood Entertainment, 2013,


Goya, Francisco. The Famiy of Charles IV. 1800, oil on canvas, Museo del Prado, Madrid.

United States, Congress, House, Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Al Qaeda: The Many Faces of an Islamist Extremist Threat. Government Printing Office, 2006, 109th Congress, 2nd session, House Report 615. 

Core Elements of an MLA Citation

Copyright-Free Images

You might be wondering... why do I need to care about copyright?

According to the Copyright Licensing Agency, "Copyright is a legal right of ownership that enables the creator of a written, artistic or published work, to control how it is used."  In school, you encounter and interact with copyrighted material every single day. You may be accustomed to simply copying an image from anywhere and pasting it into a school project without confirming that the owner of that image has granted permission for others to use it. In order to be a responsible student and global citizen, you need to be knowledgeable about copyright. The good news is, it's very easy to find copyright-friendly materials on the Web. Learn more about copyright here, and find helpful tips and resources here .